Transport systems have both defined the shape of London and been essential to the city’s daily operation since the nineteenth century. By 1900 the railways in particular had transformed the speed of travel for people and goods both across the city and from other parts of the country. Nearly all London’s food and fuel supplies came in by rail, goods to and from the docks went by train and the railways carried nearly all passengers on journeys of more than a few miles.Road transport was still almost entirely dependant on the horse, which meant that it was slow and only suitable for short distance travel. Apart from the original steam underground lines opened from the 1860s, the railways tended to make road congestion in central London worse. They fed both goods and people on to the streets to reach their final destination by horse drawn cart, cab or omnibus. Horse trams operated on the main roads and could carry more passengers than buses, but they were not allowed in the City or West End. For short journeys of two or three miles it was still almost as quick to walk.